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Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

 
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Kevin Carter_3
Frequent Advisor

Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

I have been asked to supply information about an OpenVMS system that I manage. I have been given Unix commands to be translated into their VMS equivalent. Trouble is I don't know Unix.

Attached is a list of the questions / commands

Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.
12 REPLIES 12
Steven Schweda
Honored Contributor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

A plain-text attachment may get a wider
response than a Microsoft Word document. Or
just paste the text here.
Kevin Carter_3
Frequent Advisor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

Great suggestion, here is a plain-text attachment.
Steven Schweda
Honored Contributor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

Who's asking? Why? Asking UNIX questions
about a VMS system is largely a waste of
time. Many of the concepts don't map well,
for example:

> Please display the contents of your
> initialization files:
> (cat /etc/inittab)
> (cat /etc/rc.local)

No such files on VMS. Stuff from SYS$STARTUP
would make little sense to a UNIX-only user.

> Please display rootís path:
> (echo $PATH)

SYSTEM probably doesn't even have a DCL$PATH.
(Or whatever it is. I don't use it.)

> Please display the permissions on User Home
> Directories:
> (ls -al /home/)

That command wouldn't even do the job on my
UNIX systems.

> Trouble is I don't know Unix.

Download Solaris and fool around?
Kumar_Sanjay
Regular Advisor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

OpenVMS unix Explanation/examples
=========================================================================
APPEND cat Concatenates files. If contencs of file1 need to be placed at the end of file2 issue the following unix command.cat file1 >> file2
ASSIGN or DEFINE = (Bourne & Korn)set (C shell) in Bourne or Korn shell DIR = lsin C shell set DIR ls
ATTACH fg
BACKUP tar or pax back up files into a tar file.
/INIT tar -c or pax Restore files.
/LIST tar -t List contents.
/LOG tar -v Report progress.
/NOREWIND tar -r Write at end of existing backup (tar) files.
/RECORD tar -m Update file^Ã s modification date upon restore.
COPY cp Copy a file
COPY ftp Copy to/from a nontrusted remote host.
COPY rcp Copy to/from a remote host.
COPY /CONFIRM cp -i Confirm before copying.
CREATE touch Create or update a file.
/DIRECTORY mkdir Create a subdirectory.
CREATE filename cat << filename Create a file from the keyboard.
CREATE filename cat
DEBUG dbx Debug a program.
DELETE rm Delete a file.
DELETE rmdir Delete an empty subdirectory.
/CONFIRM rm -i Confirm deletion.
/ENTRY lprm Remove queued line printer job.
/QUEUE lprm -P Remove all jobs from the queue.
/LOG rm -e Delete files and list them as they are deleted.
/SYMBOL unset Get rid of an environment variable.
DIFFERENCES diff Display all differences in files or directories.
/MAXIMUM_DIFF= 1 cmp Display first difference in two files (typically used with binary files).
/NUMBER NL: cat -n Display a file with line numbers.
/SLP diff - e Generate editing changes for the ed editor.
DIRECTORY ls List files.
DIRECTORY [...] ls -R Do a recursive directory/list of files.
DIRECTORY [...] find Find a file
DIRECTORY *.DIR ls -d List directory name(s) only ls -Rd
/BY_OWNER ls -l dir | grep owner List only those files owned by a specifed user.
/COLUMN ls -1 List one file per line.
/DATE ls -c List by creation/last modification.
/FULL ls -l Long listing.
/FULL /TOTAL du Summarize disk usage.
/MODIFIED /SINCE [...] find -mtime +n Modified more than n days ago.
/MODIFIED /BEFORE [...] find -mtime +n Modified more than n days ago.
/OWNER ls -g Include group (used with |).
/SIZE ls -s Include size.
DISMOUNT /UNLOAD mt rewofmt offline Rewind and unload the tape.
DUMP od Dump a file in various formats.
/HEXADECIMAL od -h Hexadecimal dump.
/OCTAL od -o Octal dump.
EDIT /EDT,EDIT /EVE, EVE vi Screen editor session.
EDIT /RECOVER vi -r Recover a screen editing session.
EXCHANGE dd Back up, restore, and convert nonstandard files.
EXIT exit Terminate a script.
HELP man Display online reference pages.
HELP HINTS man -k topic Display a list of commands that correspond to the specified topic.
INQUIRE /NOPUNCTUATION read choice? Prompt for a responce and put the response into an environment variable.
INITIALIZE device: fddisk -fmt device Format a diskette.
LIBRARY ar Library maintainer.
/CREATE ar -cr Create library.
/EXTRACT ar -x Extract modules.
/INSERT ar -q Insert modules.
/LIST ar -t List modules.
/REPLACE ar -r Replace modules.
LINK ld Link compiled source code into an executable image.
login procedureLOGIN /CLI .login.cshrc.profile.kshrc Set of commands automatically executed at login time. On OpenVMS, LOGIN/CLI specifies an alternate command language interpreter.
LOGOUT logout C shellexit Bourne & Korn shell Terminate a terminal session.
MAIL mail Invoke the mail utility.
MERGE sort -m Merge sorted files.
MOUNT mount Mount a tape.
ON COUNTROL_C THEN trap 2 Enable handler for Stop signal.
ON CONTROL_Y onintr On interrupt.
PHONE talk tty name Communicate interactively with another user.
PRINT lpr Print a file on the default line printer.
/COPIES=N lpr -#n Print n copies.
/DELETE lpr -r Remove file after printing
PRINT commands cont.
/FORM lpr -ln Make page n lines (default = 66)
/FORM lpr -n Print n column output.
/FORM lpr -wn Set line width to n
/HEADER pr -h string | lpr Print a header on each page.
/NAME=jobname lpr -Jjobname Include job name on the first page of the job.
/NOFLAG lpr -h Print with no header page.
/NOTIFY lpr -m Send mail upon completion.
/PAGES=(n,^Ã ^Ã ) lpr +n Begin printing on page n.
/QUEUE lpr -Pqueue Print a file on the specified queue.
READ read Read input (korn shell)
RECALL /ALL history Recall command lines
REPLY /USER write Send a brief message to a logged-in user
RENAME mv move/rename a file(s)
/CONFIRM mv -i confirm the move/rename of a file(s)
SEARCH grep Search files for strings.
/MATCH=NOR grep -v List only lines that do not match
/NOEXACT grep -i Ignore case distinctions.
/NUMBERS grep -n Precede each match with line number.
/STATISTICS grep -c List only a file name that contains match
/WINDOW = 0 grep -l Return only file name(s) that contains match
file pat^Ã rn /WINDOW=5 more -5 +/pat^Ã rn file Display search line plus two lines before and after. (Terminate with q).
file pat^Ã rn /WIND=(5,0) cat file | more -5+pat^Ã rn Display search line plus next five lines.
SET DEFAULT cd Change directory.
SET FILE/OWNER chgrp Change group ownership of a file.
SET HOST rlogin Network login to trusted host.
SET HOST /DTE tip Dial remote host.
SET HOST 0 /LOG script Record a transcript of a terminal session.
SET PASSWORD passwd Change you local password.
SET PROCESS /PRIORITY nice or renice Change the priority of a process.
SET PROTECTION chmod Change file protection.
/DEFAULT umask Change default protection for files not yet created.
SET TERMINAL tset or stty Set terminal characteristics.
SET VERIFY ksh -x orcsh -x Verify command or script execution. Echo after variable substitution.
SHOW DEFAULT pwd Display current directory.
SHOW DEVICE /FULL df filesystem Display information on a file system
SHOW LOGICAL printenv Display environment characteristics.
SHOW PROCESS /ALL ps -l Dislay all processes on system.
SHOW /QUEUE lpq Display default print queue status.
SHOW STATUS time Display resources used by a process.
SHOw TIME date Display date and time
SHOW USERS who Display the list of current system users.
SORT sort Sort and merge.
/KEY sort +fskip.cskip /-fskip.cskip Starting/ending porint of sort key.
/OUTPUT sort -o file Direct output to file.
SPAWN /NOWAIT bg Move a process to the background.
STOP /ID kill -9 Remove a process.
SUBMIT at Start a process at a latter time.
TYPE cat Display a file
/PAGE more Display a file, pausing after each page.
/PAGE NL: clear Clear the terminal screen.
WRITE /bin/echovar > file Create a file and write a string or the contents of a variable to it.
WRITE /bin/echovar >> file Append a string or the contents of a variable to an existing file.
WRITE SYS$OUTPUT echo (c Shell)print (Korn) Write to standard output.

OpenVMS Mathematical Operators Function Equivalents
====================================================
OpenVMS unix Explanation
.EQ., .EQS. == Equal to
.NE., .NES. ! Not equal to
.AND. && Boolean and
.OR. || Boolean or
.GT., .GTS. > Greater than
.GE., .GES. >= Greater than or equal to
.LT., .LTS. < Less than
.LE., .LES. <= Less than or euqal to
+ + add
- - Subtract
* * Multiply
/ / Divide
var + 1 var++ Increment by 1
var - 1 var-- Decrement by 1
% Modulo
>> Right bit shift
<< Left bit shift
.NOT. ~ 1^Ã s complement
.NOT. ! Logical negation
.OR. | Inclusive OR
^ Exclusive OR
.AND. & And

OpenVMS Lexical Function and unix Equivalents
=============================================
OpenVMS unix Explanation
F$ENVIRONMENT(^Ã INTERACTIVE^Ã ) tty -s Determine if you are an interactive user.
F$EXTRACT(start, length, string) cut -c Locate fields in a test string and write them out.
F$ELEMENT(element#, delimiter, string) cut -f -d awk Locate delimited fields in a test string.
F$ENVIRONMENT(^Ã PROCEDURE^Ã ) $0 (Korn)$arg [0] (C) Get name of currently executing script.
F$TRANSLATE(^Ã SYS$SYSDEVICE^Ã ) sizer -r Get name of the device from which the operating system bootstrapped.
F$GETDVI(^Ã TT:^Ã , ^Ã DEVNAM^Ã ) tty -s Determine the name of the terminal you are using.
F$GETSYI(^Ã HW_NAME^Ã ) sizer -c Get model name of the CPU
F$GETSYI(^Ã HW_MODEL^Ã )F$GETSYI(^Ã CPU^Ã ) sizer -wt Return workstation device type
F$GETSYI(^Ã VERSION^Ã ) sizer -bstrings /vmunix | grep ^Ã (Rev^Ã uname -a Determine booted kernel^Ã s file name and system version.
F$GETSYI(^Ã PHYSICALPAGES^Ã ) uerf -r 300 -R | grep physical (+2)wc -c/dev/mem Get the physical memory on a system.
F$GETSYI(^Ã BOOTTIME^Ã ) who -b Get system boot time.

unix Branching statements
DCL command procedures rely on the statements if, gosub, call, and goto for program branching. The shells under unix offer several branching statements.

Shell Branching Statements Offered
====================================
csh if, goto, while, foreach, switch, shift
ksh do, case, elif, for, function, if, select, time, until, while
sh if, for, while, until, case

Debugging Shell Scripts
Debugging of shell scripts is done by invoking ksh or sh scripts with the -x and -v flags. Debuging of C shell scripts by invoking them with the -v, -V, -x or -X flags
Kumar_Sanjay
Regular Advisor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

Please have a look in txt file.

Regards
Sanjay Kumar
labadie_1
Honored Contributor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

See http://vms2linux.free.fr

(even if it is in french, you should understand easily what is going on)
Willem Grooters
Honored Contributor
Solution

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

I would like to see their faces when they get your reply. They obviously don't know OpenVMS at all.

I have to concur with Steven. There are fundamental differences between VMS and Unix.
You could be helped by installing GNV - allowing you to use most Unix commands (and give you an opportunity to learn Unix on a familiar platform).

But I would forget about the Unix commands and focus on the required information. Despite the differnces, most will simply exist but in a very different format. Some are present in a diffeernt implementation. Some things simply do not exist.

Attached a Q&D 'translation'. Most has been checked on a VMS 7.2 system. You won't get around some programming (DCL or otherwise)

Willem
Willem Grooters
OpenVMS Developer & System Manager
Kevin Carter_3
Frequent Advisor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

Some good questions and excellent responses. The Unix questions are being asked by a security team that is obviously unfamiliar with OpenVMS. The purpose of the questions is to evaluate the security level of the VMS system. Since the evaluators are unfamiliar with OpenVMS their opinion will have limited value, but I am expected to respond to the questions where they apply to the environment. It is acceptable for me to respond that a particular Unix command has no meaning / relevance in the VMS world (that is an option). Again the problem is that I don't know Unix. Seems like I have been provided enough comments & resources to answer the questionnaire.

Again, thanks for your assistance.
Andy Bustamante
Honored Contributor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

If your auditing team isn't familiar with VMS, how can they effectively perform an audit? But that's another discussion.

You can dig up a copy of Unix for OpenVMS users, http://www.amazon.com/UNIX-OpenVMS-Users-Third-Technologies/dp/1555582761/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1219944930&sr=1-1

Another option is to helpfully provide a copy of the VMS Documentation set on CD for the auditors to review.
If you don't have time to do it right, when will you have time to do it over? Reach me at first_name + "." + last_name at sysmanager net
Music
Advisor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

Steven Schweda
Honored Contributor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

> [...] The Unix questions are being asked by
> a security team that is obviously
> unfamiliar with OpenVMS.

What do they do for a Windows system, ask the
same UNIX-oriented questions?

I can't decide who's more foolish, the people
who are asking the questions, or the people
who expect to learn anything useful from the
people who are asking the questions.

> Again the problem is that I don't know Unix.

I disagree. To me, the problem appears to be
that you're dealing with people who don't
know enough about VMS, and who seem content
that way.
Kevin Carter_3
Frequent Advisor

Re: Translating Unix commands to OpenVMS

closed